Working Capital Management Decisions: Optimizing Cash Flow and Driving Returns

Working capital represents the operating liquidity available to run day-to-day business activities. Understanding and optimizing working capital is critical for investment bankers conducting due diligence or managing portfolio companies.

Improving working capital management directly increases free cash flow available for distribution, debt repayment, and reinvestment. It also enhances valuation multiples relied on by investors and analysts. Working capital optimization is a top priority when assessing acquisition targets or improving portfolio company performance.

This guide will explore key working capital metrics, valuation impacts, diligence approaches, and operating initiatives investment bankers utilize to maximize free cash flow and equity returns.

 

Create Financial Models 10x Faster with Macabacus

Gain access to 100+ shortcuts, formula auditing visualizations, easy Excel-to-PowerPoint linking and productivity tools to help you accelerate financial modeling and presentations.

Key Working Capital Metrics for Investment Analysis

When evaluating companies for M&A or LBO transactions, investment bankers focus on three core working capital metrics:

Cash Conversion Cycle 

The cash conversion cycle measures how long capital is tied up in inventory and accounts receivable before cash payment is received from customers.

Faster conversion cycles free up capital more quickly to fund growth initiatives or debt repayment. During diligence, investment bankers benchmark cash conversion cycles against peers to identify working capital inefficiencies.

Days Sales Outstanding

Days sales outstanding (DSO) indicates the average time to collect on credit sales. Higher DSO suggests customer payment problems, tying up working capital.

Investment bankers assess if extended DSO stems from poor credit policies or unfavorable payment terms relative to peers. Tightening credit or renegotiating terms can dramatically improve working capital velocity.

Inventory Turnover

The inventory turnover ratio shows how efficiently inventory is managed by comparing the cost of goods sold to the average inventory.

Higher turnover indicates shorter holding periods, freeing up working capital. Investment bankers determine if excess inventory is diluting turnover and cash flow. Just-in-time systems can optimize inventory levels.

How Working Capital Drives Valuation

The cash trapped in working capital directly impacts valuation and financing capacity:

 Improved Free Cash Flow

Each day working capital is tied up represents lost investing and financing opportunities. Faster working capital velocity increases free cash flow available for distribution to investors.

This directly boosts valuation multiples like EV/EBITDA, which investment bankers rely on. Improved free cash flow also enhances debt repayment capacity.

Reduced External Financing

Optimizing working capital lowers the incremental funding external sources required to support operations and growth.

This improved self-funding capacity can reduce reliance on equity issuances that dilute existing shareholders. It also lessens financing needs for LBO transactions.

Assessing Working Capital Management in Diligence

During M&A or LBO due diligence, investment bankers thoroughly evaluate working capital management:

Benchmarking Against Peers

Diligence assesses working capital metrics like DSO and inventory turnover against industry competitors. This reveals inefficiencies representing opportunities for cash flow improvements.

Interviewing Management

Management is interviewed to understand existing working capital initiatives and strategies. This provides insight into potential enhancements and historical obstacles faced.

Forecasting Working Capital

In LBO models, investment bankers diligently forecast working capital needs to determine financing requirements. This enables optimizing capital structure for maximum equity returns.

Identifying Improvements

Diligence identifies specific initiatives to improve working capital cycles as part of the target investment thesis. For example, shifting supplier payments to extend payables days.

Optimizing Working Capital in Portfolio Companies

Once acquired, investment bankers prioritize working capital improvements to drive returns:

Incentivizing Management

Portfolio company management compensation is tied to key working capital KPIs through initiatives like inventory turnover targets or DSO reduction. This incentive alignment focuses management efforts.

Implementing Just-in-Time Systems

Moving to just-in-time inventory management limits excessive raw materials and finished goods stockpiling. This reduces inventory days to improve cash conversion cycles.

Renegotiating Payment Terms

Leveraging scale, investment bankers renegotiate extended payment terms with large suppliers. This increases payables days to align with customer DSO.

Accelerating Collections

Introducing standardized credit policies and strategic payment discounts accelerates customer collections. This directly reduces DSO to improve working capital velocity.

Prioritizing Debt Reduction

Rather than distribution, initial cash flow gains from working capital optimization are invested in repaying high-cost LBO debt. This deleverages the capital structure faster to drive equity returns.

Monitoring Working Capital During Ownership

Working capital management remains an ongoing focus area during portfolio company ownership:

Adding KPIs to Quarterly Reviews

Key working capital metrics are added to regular management reporting. This allows tracking progress on improvement initiatives.

Continuing Optimization Efforts

Even after initial enhancements, investment bankers continually push for working capital efficiencies to extract maximum free cash flow over the holding period.

Updating LBO Models

Actual working capital needs to replace original diligence estimates in LBO models. This enhances the accuracy of future projections and financing requirements.

The Role of Data Analytics in Working Capital Optimization

Advanced data analytics and business intelligence tools allow investment bankers to gain unprecedented insights into working capital performance. By leveraging large datasets, bankers can:

  • Build predictive models forecasting working capital needs based on influencing variables like sales growth, inventory levels, and commodity costs. This enhances diligence modeling accuracy.
  • Use customer segmentation to identify high credit risk accounts requiring tighter terms or discounts to accelerate collections. This directly reduces DSO.
  • Analyze procurement expenditures to detect supplier concentration risks. Renegotiation leverage can then be applied to key vendors to extend payable days.
  • Maintain dashboards with real-time visibility into inventory levels, receivables aging, and payables. This arms management with actionable data to continuously optimize capital.

Advanced analytics provide significant opportunities to not only optimize working capital but also sustain long-term improvements.

Investment teams are increasingly bringing this capability in-house or partnering with specialized providers. Data-driven insights allow working capital reductions once considered impossible based on historical averages and inertia.

Tax Considerations

Working capital optimization strategies pursued by investment bankers also require consideration of potential tax implications:

  • Transfer pricing policies on internal inventory transactions can impact inventory carrying values and turnover for tax purposes.
  • Accelerated payment discounts offered to customers create taxable income for the business.
  • Extending payables days delays tax deductions related to inventory costs and other expenditures.
  • Reduced inventory levels minimize LIFO layer depletion tax obligations.
  • Tax-efficient supply chain and centralization strategies support working capital goals.

Investment bankers consult internal tax experts and external advisors when implementing material working capital initiatives. Taxes represent a key variable when modeling planned improvements’ true cash flow impact.

Proactively managing tax exposure is crucial to avoiding unintended consequences that could dilute equity returns. This enables bankers to maintain focus on operational optimization rather than minimizing tax liabilities.

Incorporating Working Capital into LBO Models

LBO models are core tools used by investment bankers to evaluate acquisition targets and optimize capital structure. Accurately factoring in working capital projections is crucial when building LBO models. Investment bankers will closely analyze historical working capital metrics and diligence findings to determine expected future working capital needs. These projections will inform revolver sizing, upfront restructuring costs, financing requirements, and projected returns.

Sensitivities can then be run on working capital assumptions like days sales outstanding to analyze impacts on purchase price and overall returns. Inventory growth and turnover ratios need to be accurately modeled as well to ensure adequate revolver capacity to fund future inventory buildup. Planned working capital enhancement initiatives will also be incorporated into LBO models to quantify the projected cash flow and valuation impacts.

As actual working capital metrics become available post-acquisition, investment bankers routinely update LBO models to reflect changing business conditions. This allows continuous capital structure and equity value optimization based on real performance data. Even long-term projections are refined over time based on industry norms.

Monitoring Working Capital Metrics and Compliance

Investment bankers closely monitor working capital metrics and compliance with implemented initiatives after acquisition. Monthly management reports will incorporate days sales outstanding, inventory turnover, and cash conversion cycle KPIs to maintain an organization-wide focus on working capital performance. Dashboards tracking progress on specific improvement opportunities and targets further reinforce compliance across business units.

Approval controls and audits will be established by investment bankers to enforce adherence to payment and collection policies. Working capital metrics will be reviewed in board meetings to interview management on progress made.

Audits also uncover any unauthorized policy deviations or bottlenecks limiting success. Comparing current working capital KPIs against original LBO model projections highlights any divergence from the plan.

This hands-on monitoring ensures working capital optimization efforts sustain momentum beyond initial quick wins. Fundamentally improving these entrenched areas requires changing habits and culture across the organization. Investment bankers play a critical role in maintaining this implementation focus beyond the first 100 days to ingrain operational excellence.

Final Thoughts

Working capital optimization is a value creation priority for investment bankers involved throughout the investment lifecycle.

It directly improves the free cash flow available for distribution and debt repayment. This enhances equity returns and valuation multiples.

From diligence to exit, investment bankers analyze working capital metrics, identify improvement opportunities, implement initiatives, and monitor progress. The cash flow impact reaches the bottom line results relied on by stakeholders.

Working capital management represents an often overlooked driver of returns. But once unlocked, tangible benefits extend throughout operations, financing, and valuation – key focuses for investment bankers seeking to maximize equity upside.

Create Financial Models 10x Faster with Macabacus

Gain access to 100+ shortcuts, formula auditing visualizations, easy Excel-to-PowerPoint linking and productivity tools to help you accelerate financial modeling and presentations.

Discover more topics

Build an operating model
In this tutorial, we will walk through how to build a general industry business operating model.
Read more
Build an M&A model
In this section, we demonstrate how to model a merger of two public companies in Excel.
Read more
Build an LBO model
In this tutorial, we will walk you through building an LBO model in Excel.
Read more
Asset and Stock Deals
The first step in purchase price allocation, or PPA, is to determine the purchase price.
Read more